Final day of the International workshop “Social Inequality and Value Polarization: A Cross-Country Perspective”
In this article we describe the final day of the International workshop “Social Inequality and Polarization Value: A Cross-Country Perspective”.
Second day of the International Workshop “Social Inequality and Polarization Value: A Cross-Country Perspective”
In this article we describe the second day of the International workshop “Social Inequality and Polarization Value: A Cross-Country Perspective”.
International Workshop “Social Inequality and Value Polarization: A Cross-Country Perspective” Opened Its Doors at HSE St.Petersburg
The International workshop “Social Inequality and Value Polarization: a Cross-Country Perspective”, co-organized by the Laboratory for Comparative Social Research and the Department of Sociology at the HSE in St.Petersburg, opened its doors on September 16, 2019.
Program of the International Workshop “Social Inequality and Value Polarization: A Cross-Country Perspective” is published online
The Laboratory for Comparative Social Research and Department of Sociology of the Higher School of Economics – Saint Petersburg invite you to visit the International Workshop “Social Inequality and Value Polarization: A Cross-Country Perspective” which will be held on September, 16-18, 2019 in Saint Petersburg. Program of the Workshop is available on the LCSR website.
We are glad to congratulate our graduates with successful defenses of their master's theses and the culmination of a learning marathon that each student has worked hard to complete. The staff of Master’s programme wishes them good luck and great success in their further careers.
Inspired by her exchange experience in Moscow during her undergraduate studies, French student Marion Jacquart decided to do her Master’s at the School for Advanced Studies in the Social Sciences in Paris because it has a double degree agreement with HSE University. As she finishes her programme in Comparative Social Research in Moscow, where she has been based for the last year doing research for her Master’s thesis on feminism, she shared her experience and impressions with the HSE News Service.
LCSR and Journal "Monitoring of Public Opinion: Economic and Social Changes" announce special issue call for papers «Happiness and Subjective Well-being in Russia» (Volume 1, 2020). Guest editors: Eduard Ponarin (PhD, LCSR head), Anna Almakaeva (PhD, LCSR deputy head) and Natalia Gashenina (PhD, Public Opinion Foundation – FOM). Manuscripts should be submitted in Russian or in English by the 31st of July 2019.
Main goal of his report was an attempt to review in general terms the main results of the project “Political Conflict in Europe in the Context of the World Economic Crisis”.
Ronald Inglehart (LCSR HSE, University of Michigan) gave a talk at the 9th LCSR International Workshop “Comparative Social Research” with report “From an Authoritarian Personality to an Authoritarian Reflex: Evolving Views on a Sustainable Phenomenon.”
- Foa, R.S., & Nemirovskaya, A.V. (2019). Frontier Settlement and the Spatial Variation of Civic Institutions. Political Geography 73(8), 112-122. DOI: 10.1016/j.polgeo.2019.05.013.
- Karabchuk, T., & Soboleva, N. (2019). Temporary Employment, Informal Work and Subjective Well-Being Across Europe: Does Labor Legislation Matter? Journal of Happiness Studies, 1-23. DOI: 10.1007/s10902-019-00152-4.
- Kravtsova, M., & Oshchepkov, A.Y. (2019). Market and Network Corruption. Working Papers by HSE University. Series: Economics, WP BRP 209/EC/2019.
- Kriesi, H., & Malet, G. (2019). Economic Shocks and the Cost of Ruling: Evidence from Italy. Journal of Elections, Public Opinion and Parties, 1-20. DOI: 10.1080/17457289.2019.1571496.
- Mavletova, A., & Lynn, P. (2019). Item Nonresponse Rates and Panel Conditioning in a Longitudinal Survey among Youth. Field Methods 31(2), 95-115. DOI: 10.1177/1525822X18825103.
- Nemirovskiy, V.G., & Nemirovskaya, A.V. (2019). Social Competitiveness of the Youth and Their Perceptions of the Socio-Cultural Environment (Based on Research in a Large Siberian Region). Journal of Siberian Federal University. Series: Humanities & Social Sciences 12(2), 206-216. DOI: 10.17516/1997-1370-0389.
- Sokolov, B. Sensitivity of Goodness of Fit Indices to Lack of Measurement Invariance with Categorical Indicators and Many Groups. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Sociology, WP BRP 86/SOC/2019.
- Tkacheva, T., & Golosov, G.V. (2019). United Russia’s Primaries and the Strength of Political Machines in the Regions of Russia: Evidence from the 2016 Duma Elections. Europe-Asia Studies 71(5), 824-839. DOI: 10.1080/09668136.2019.1613515.
- Корсунова В.И. Культурное потребление в социологических исследованиях: обзор подходов к измерению понятия // Экономическая социология. 2019. Т. 20. № 2. С. 148-173.
- Костенко В.В., Понарин Э.Д., Стребкова О.Н. Влияние исторических процессов на гендерные установки в странах Арабского Востока // Восток. Афро-Азиатские общества: история и современность. 2019. № 2. С. 126-146.
- Поплавская А.А., Соболева Н.Э. Реализация достижительных мотивов мужчин и женщин на рынках труда разных стран мира // Экономическая социология. 2019. Т. 20. № 2. С. 51-85.
- Ткачева Т.Ю., Турченко М.С. Факторы успеха кандидатов-самовыдвиженцев на выборах в представительные органы столиц регионов России (2014-2018 гг.) // Политическая наука. 2019. № 1. С. 147-164.
- Чмель К.Ш. Редуцируя комплексность: революция в современной левой политической мысли // Полития. 2019. № 1 (92). С. 22-40. DOI: 10.30570/2078-5089-2019-92-1-22-40.
- Almakaeva, A., Welzel, C., & Ponarin, E. (2018). . Social Indicators Research 139(3), 923-962. DOI: 10.1007%2Fs11205-017-1724-z.
- Bessudnov, A., & Shcherbak, A. (2018). Ethnic hierarchy in the Russian labour market: A field experiment. SocArXiv papers. DOI: 10.31235/osf.io/2qzus.
- Brunkert, L.J., Kruse, S., & Welzel, C. (2018). A tale of culture-bound regime evolution: the centennial democratic trend and its recent reversal. Democratization, 1-22. DOI: 10.1080/13510347.2018.1542430.
- Chmel, K., Savin, N., & Michael, X.D.C. Making Politics Attractive: Political Satire and Exposure to Political Information in New Media Environment in Russia. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Political Science, WP BRP 63/PS/2018.
- Dollbaum, J.M., Semenov, A., & Sirotkina, E. (2018). A Top-Down Movement with Grass-Roots Effects? Alexei Navalny’s Electoral Campaign. Social Movement Studies, 1-8. DOI: 10.1080/14742837.2018.1483228.
- Electoral Integrity and Political Regimes Actors, Strategies and Consequences / ed. by Zavadskaya, M., & Garnett, H.A. L.: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 2018.
- Firat, R., Kwon, H.W., & Hitlin, S. (2018). A Novel Measure of Moral Boundaries: Testing Perceived In-group/Out-group Value Differences in a Midwestern Sample. Socius: Sociological Research for a Dynamic World 4, 1-11. DOI: 10.1177/2378023118818741.
- Foa, R., Inglehart, R.F., Ponarin, E., & Karabchuk, T. (2018). Set-Point Theory and Societal Collapse: The Case of Russia. Journal of Happiness Studies 19(6), 1639-1656. DOI: 10.1007/s10902-017-9888-4.
- Golosov, G.V., & Tkacheva, T. (2018). Let My People Run: Pre-Election Resignations of Russia's Governors, 2013-2015. Problems of Post-Communism 65(4), 243-252. DOI: 10.1080/10758216.2017.1351305.
- Gureev, A.S., Ananieva, E.D., Rubanovich, A.V., Inglehart, R.F., Ponarin, E.D., & Borinskaya, S.A. (2018). Association of MAOA-uVNTR Polymorphism with Subjective Well-Being in Men. Russian Journal of Genetics 54(5), 562-567. DOI: 10.1134/S1022795418050058.
- Kravtsova, M., Oshchepkov, A.Y., & Welzel, C. The Shadow of the Family: Historical Roots of Social Capital in Europe. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Sociology, WP BRP 82/SOC/2018.
- Mavletova, A.M., Gavrilov, K.A., & Tholmogorova, T. (2018). Gamifying a web survey among adolescents: effects on understanding of risk, risk calculation, and ratio-bias. Journal of Risk Research, 1-14. DOI: 10.1080/13669877.2018.1501592.
- Mavletova, A.M., Couper, M.P., & Lebedev, D.V. (2018). Grid and Item-by-Item Formats in PC and Mobile Web Surveys. Social Science Computer Review 36(6), 647-668. DOI: 10.1177/0894439317735307.
- Mitrokhina, E. (2018). Executive Constraints and Economic Growth in Autocracies. Bulletin of Perm University. Political Science 12(4), 106-121. DOI: 10.17072/2218-1067-2018-4-106-121.
- Nemirovskaya, A. (2018). The Standard of Living and Revolutions in Russia, 1700–1917 by Boris Mironov (review). Ab Imperio 19(3), 436-442. DOI: 10.1353/imp.2018.0072.
- Ponarin, E., & Komin, M. Imperial and ethnic nationalism: A dilemma of the Russian elite. Russia Before and After Crimea. Edinburgh University Press, 2018. P. 50-67.
- Ponarin, E., & Komin, M. (2018). The Russian elite's imperial nationalism and the Russian society: The emergence of a grand consensus. Sociology Compass 12(12), 1-16. DOI: 10.1111/soc4.12641.
- Savin, N., Kashirskikh, O.N., & Mavletova, A.M. (2018). Fragility of Strong Media-Effects in Authoritarian Environment (Evidence from Russia). European Journal of Communication, 1-18. DOI: 10.1177/0267323118775305.
- Shirokanova, A., & Silyutina, O. (2018). Internet Regulation Media Coverage in Russia: Topics and Countries. WebSci'18 Proceedings of the 10th ACM Conference on Web Science. N.Y.: ACM, 2018. P. 359-363. DOI: 10.1145/3201064.3201102.
- Shirokanova, A., & Silyutina, O. (2018). Internet Regulation: A Text-based Approach to Media Coverage. Digital Transformation and Global Society Third International Conference, DTGS 2018, St. Petersburg, Russia, May 30 – June 2, 2018. Revised Selected Papers, Part I. Iss. 858. Cham: Springer, 2018. P. 181-194. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-02843-5_15.
- Sokolov, B. (2018). The Index of Emancipative Values: Measurement Model Misspecifications. American Political Science Review 112(2), 395-408. DOI: 10.1017/S0003055417000624.
- Sokolov, B., Inglehart, R.F., Ponarin, E., Vartanova, I., & Zimmerman, W. (2018). Disillusionment and Anti-Americanism in Russia: From Pro-American to Anti-American Attitudes, 1993–2009. International Studies Quarterly. DOI: 10.1093/isq/sqy013.
- Vliert, E. van de, Welzel, C., Shcherbak, A., Fischer, R., & Alexander, A.C. (2018). Got Milk? How Freedoms Evolved From Dairying Climates. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 1-18. DOI: 10.1177/0022022118778336.
- Yusupova, G., & Ponarin, E. (2018). Social Remittances in Religion: Muslim Migrants in Russia and Transformation of Islamic Practices. Problems of Post-Communism 65(3), 188-200. DOI: 10.1080/10758216.2016.1224552.
- Zavadskaya, M., & Garnett, H.A. Electoral Integrity and Political Regimes Actors, Strategies and Consequences. L.: Routledge, 2018.
- Алмакаева А.М., Мавлетова А.М. Модернизационные процессы в России: ожидать ли сдвига в сторону эмансипативных ценностей? // Мониторинг общественного мнения: Экономические и социальные перемены. 2018. № 6. С. 91-112. DOI: 10.14515/monitoring.2018.6.05.
- Волченко О.В., Алмакаева А.М. Динамика социального капитала в России // Мониторинг общественного мнения: Экономические и социальные перемены. 2018. № 4. С. 273-292. DOI: 10.14515/monitoring.2018.4.13.
- Гуреев А.С., Ананьева Е.Д., Рубанович А.В., Инглхарт Р.Ф., Понарин Э.Д., Боринская С.А. Ассоциация uVNTR-аллелей гена MAOA с субъективной оценкой благополучия у мужчин // Генетика. 2018. Т. 54, № 5. С. 556-562. DOI: 10.7868/S0016675818050065.
- Ломакин И.В. Продолжая Кона: гендер, семья, занятость. Специальная секция VIII Грушинской социологической конференции // Мониторинг общественного мнения: экономические и социальные перемены. 2018. № 3. С. 364-373. DOI: 10.14515/monitoring.2018.3.20.
- Немировский В., Немировская А., Булатова Т.А. Страх как фактор социокультурных деформаций жизненного мира россиян // Вестник Института социологии. 2018. № 24. С. 95-114. DOI: 10.19181/vis.2018.24.1.499.
- Немировский В., Немировская А.В. Социальная конкурентоспособность: шансы на успех у молодежи и взрослых // Социологический журнал. 2018. Т. 24. № 2. С. 135-149. DOI: 10.19181/socjour.2018.24.2.5848.
- Соколов Б.О., Корсунова В.И. Нестрогий байесовский подход к проверке допущения об измерительной инвариантности: иллюстрация на примере ценностей выбора // Социология: методология, методы, математическое моделирование. 2018. № 46. С. 7-43.
- Терентьев Е.А., Мавлетова А.М., Косолапов М.С. Интервьюирование с помощью компьютерных технологий в лонгитюдных обследованиях домохозяйств // Мониторинг общественного мнения: экономические и социальные перемены. 2018. № 3. С. 47-64. DOI: 10.14515/monitoring.2018.3.03.
- Широканова А.А. Установки в отношении социального обеспечения в Польше и России: результаты Европейского социального исследования // Журнал Белорусского государственного университета. Социология. 2018. № 1. С. 135-143.
- Щербак А.Н., Ухватова М.В. От «красного пояса» – к «библейскому»: исторические предпосылки сдвигов в политической географии России // Общественные науки и современность. 2018. № 6. С. 98-113. DOI: 10.31857/S086904990000379-8.
Publications of Associate Researchers 2018
- Ignácz, Z.S. (2018). The Remains of the Socialist Legacy: The Influence of Socialist Socialization on Attitudes toward Income Inequality. Societies 8(3), 1-33. DOI: 10.3390/soc8030062.
Alexander, A., Welzel, C., & Inglehart, R. (2013). Rising Support for Reproductive Freedoms: Emancipatory Breakthroughs into a Bulwark of Tradition. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Sociology, WP BRP 30/SOC/2013.
Bessudnov, A. (2014). Parental Occupational Status And Labour Market Outcomes In Russia. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Sociology, WP BRP 36/SOC/2014.
Bessudnov, A., & Makarov, A. (2013). Gender Differences in Mathematical Performance and the School Context: Evidence from Russia. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Education, WP BRP 11/EDU/2013.
Chmel, K., Demin, A., & Kazantcev, K. (2017). Dictators’ Behavior Under Conditions of Economic Sanctions Cumulative Effect. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Political Science, WP BRP 50/PS/2017.
Chmel, K., Savin, N., & Michael, X.D.C. (2018). Making Politics Attractive: Political Satire and Exposure to Political Information in New Media Environment in Russia. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Political Science, WP BRP 63/PS/2018.
Fabrykant, M., & Magun, V. (2015). Grounded and Normative Dimensions of National Pride in Comparative Perspective. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Sociology, WP BRP 62/SOC/2015.
Foa, R., Nemirovskaya, A., & Mostovova, E. (2012). Internal Empires I: Social Institutions of the Frontier. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Sociology, WP BRP 09/SOC/2012.
Gryaznova, O. (2013). Factors Affecting Welfare Attitudes in Different Types of Welfare States: Personal Interests and Values. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Sociology, WP BRP 18/SOC/2013.
Inglehart, R., Foa, R., Ponarin, E., & Welzel, C. (2013). Understanding the Russian Malaise: The Collapse and Recovery of Subjective Well-being in Post-communist Russia. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Sociology, WP BRP 32/SOC/2013.
Inglehart, R., Welzel, C., & Puranen, B. (2013). Reinventing the Kantean Peace: The Emerging Mass Basis of Global Security. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Sociology, WP BRP 28/SOC/2013.
Inglehart, R.F., Borinskaya, S., Cotter, A., Harro, J., Inglehart, R.C., Ponarin, E., & Welzel, C. (2013). Genes, Security, Tolerance and Happiness. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Sociology, WP BRP 31/SOC/2013.
Kravtsova, M., & Oshchepkov, A.Y. (2019). Market and Network Corruption. Working Papers by HSE University. Series: Economics, WP BRP 209/EC/2019.
Kravtsova, M., Oshchepkov, A., & Welzel C. (2014). Corruption and Docial Values: Do Postmaterialists Justify Bribery? Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Sociology, WP BRP 34/SOC/2014.
Kravtsova, M., Oshchepkov, A.Y., & Welzel, C. (2018). The Shadow of the Family: Historical Roots of Social Capital in Europe. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Sociology, WP BRP 82/SOC/2018.
Lazarev, Y. (2011). Land, Votes, and Violence: Political Effects of the Insecure Property Rights over Land in Dagestan. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Political Science, WP BRP 01/SOC/2011.
Lazarev, Y.A., Sobolev, A.S., Soboleva, I.V., & Sokolov, B. (2012). Trial by Fire: a Natural Disaster’s Impact on Attitudes toward the Government in Rural Russia. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Political Science, WP BRP 04/PS/2012.
Lytkina, E. (2015). Anomie and Alienation in the Post-Communist Area: A Reapplication of the Middleton Scale in Russia and Kazakhstan. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Psychology, WP BRP 32/PSY/2015.
Magun, V., & Rudnev, M. (2013). Basic Human Values of Russians: Both Different from and Similar to Other Europeans. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Sociology, WP BRP 23/SOC/2013.
Magun, V., Rudnev, M., & Schmidt, P. (2012). Within and Between-Country Value Diversity in Europe: Latent Class Analysis. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Sociology, WP BRP 06/SOC/2012.
Rudnev, M. (2013). Value Adaptation to a New Social Environment: Impacts from Country of Birth and Country of Residence on Values of Intra-European Migrants. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Sociology, WP BRP 13/SOC/2013.
Savelyev, Y. (2014). Modernization and Variations in Emancipative Values in European Societies in 1995-2008: Test of Inglehart’s Socialization Hypothesis. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Sociology, WP BRP 48/SOC/2014.
Shcherbak, A. (2012). Does Culture Matter? The Impact of Tolerance on Economic Modernization in a Comparative Perspective. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Sociology, WP BRP 05/SOC/2012.
Shcherbak, A. (2013). Nationalism in the USSR: A Historical and Comparative Perspective. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Sociology, WP BRP 27/SOC/2013.
Shcherbak, A. (2015). Does Milk Matter? Genetic Adaptation to Environment: The Effect of Lactase Persistence on Cultural Change. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Sociology, WP BRP 64/SOC/2015.
Shcherbak, A. (2016). The Recipe for Democracy? The Spread of European Diet and Political Change. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Sociology, WP BRP 70/SOC/2016.
Shirokanova, A. (2015). Protestant Work Ethic Among the Muslims: Changeable Empirical Evidence. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Sociology, WP BRP 60/SOC/2015.
Sirotkina E., & Karandashova S. (2016). How Multilevel Elite Loyalty Strengthens Electoral Authoritarianism: Evidence from Gubernatorial Elections in Russia. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Political Science, WP BRP 36/PS/2016.
Sirotkina, E., & Zavadskaya, M. (2017). How to Get Away with Murder in Russia: Political Support in the Times of Crisis. Evidence from the Survey Experiment. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Political Science, WP BRP 47/PS/2017.
Sokolov, B. (2019). Sensitivity of Goodness of Fit Indices to Lack of Measurement Invariance with Categorical Indicators and Many Groups. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Sociology, WP BRP 86/SOC/2019.
Swader, C., & Kosals, L. (2013). Post-Socialist Anomie through the Lens of Economic Modernization and the Formalization of Social Control. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Sociology, WP BRP 17/SOC/2013.
Welzel, C., & Inglehart, R. (2013). Evolution, Empowerment and Emancipation: How Societies Ascend the Utility Ladder of Freedoms. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Sociology, WP BRP 29/SOC/2013.
Zelikova, J. (2013). Successful Aging: A Cross-National Study of Subjective Well-being Later in Life. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Sociology, WP BRP 21/SOC/2013.
Zhirkov, K. (2014). Development, Culture, and Attitudes to America: Country-Level Predictors of Anti-Americanism. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Sociology, WP BRP 35/SOC/2014.
Zhirkov, K., Verkuyten, M., & Weesie J. (2012). World Politics and Support for Terrorism within Muslim Populations: Evidence from Muslim Countries and Western Europe. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Sociology, WP BRP 08/SOC/2012.
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Лаборатория сравнительных социальных исследований, Национальный исследовательский университет «Высшая школа экономики».
Laboratory for Comparative Social Research, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Russian Federation.
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Статья/монография/глава подготовлена в ходе/в результате проведения исследования/работы в рамках Программы фундаментальных исследований Национального исследовательского университета «Высшая школа экономики» (НИУ ВШЭ) и с использованием средств субсидии в рамках государственной поддержки ведущих университетов Российской Федерации "5-100".
The article/book chapter/book was prepared within the framework of the Basic Research Program of the HSE University Basic Research Program and funded by the Russian Academic Excellence Project '5-100'.
Using a new measure of “comprehensive democracy,” our analysis traces the global democratic trend over the last 116 years, from 1900 until 2016, looking in particular at the centennial trend’s cultural zoning. As it turns out, democracy has been proceeding and continues to differentiate the world’s nations in a strongly culture-bound manner: high levels of democracy remain a distinctive feature of nations in which emancipative values have grown strong over the generations. By the same token, backsliding and autocratization are limited to cultures with under-developed emancipative values. In line with this finding, public support for democracy neither favours democratization, nor does it prevent autocratization in disjunction from emancipative values. On the contrary, public support for democracy shows such pro-democratic effects if – and only if – it co-exists in close association with emancipative values. The reason is that – in disconnect from emancipative values – support for democracy frequently reverts its meaning, indicating the exact opposite of what intuition suggests: namely, support for autocracy. In conclusion, the prospects for democracy are bleak where emancipative values remain weak.
We introduce a set of concepts and general guidelines for what we call Contentious Episode Analysis (CEA). In the footsteps of Dynamics of Contention (DoC), we attempt to develop a conceptual framework that improves upon the concepts originally introduced by McAdam, Tarrow, and Tilly (2001). Our analytical strategy is similar to that of DoC in that we also propose to decompose the episodes into their component elements—actors, actions, sequences of actions, pairs of actions—that can then be recombined in a systematic way. We suggest that contentious episode analysis holds out the promise to go beyond the narrative approach by infusing it with the rigor and explicitness, while maintaining a dynamic quality. At the same time, CEA aims to move beyond a narrow focus on protest activities by challengers by incorporating into the analysis a broader set of action repertoires by a broader set of actors.
A widely neglected phenomenon consists in the fact that large population segments in many countries confuse the absence of democracy with its presence. Significantly, these are also the countries where widespread support for democracy coexists with persistent deficiencies in the latter, including its outright absence. Addressing this puzzle, we introduce a framework to sort out to what extent national populations overestimate their regimes’ democratic qualities. We test our hypotheses applying multilevel models to about 93,000 individuals from 75 countries covered by the cross-cultural World Values Surveys. We find that overestimating democracy is a widespread phenomenon, although it varies systematically across countries. Among a multitude of plausible influences, cognitive stimuli and emancipative values work together as a psychologically activating force that turns people against overestimating democracy. In fact, this psychological activation not only reduces overestimations of democracy; it actually leads toward underestimations, thus increasing criticality rather than accuracy in assessments. We conclude that, by elevating normative expectations, psychological activation releases prodemocratic selection pressures in the evolution of regimes.
Do voters punish governments more severely during international economic crises or do they discount exogenous shocks as they recognize the government’s limited “room of manoeuvre”? The current literature provides conflicting answers to this question. This study argues that in such contexts citizens’ economic perceptions are less likely to predict their sanctioning behavior but that, nonetheless, governments experience a higher cost of ruling. We show that in the paradigmatic case of Italy, government popularity during the Great Recession, while being hardly explained by economic evaluations, suffers a stronger decline as a function of time in office. We account for this increased cost of ruling by economic policy debates and other political events, such as cabinet crises and large-scale scandals.
This study investigates the effect of country-level emancipative forces on corporate gender diversity around the world. Based on Welzel’s (Freedom rising: human empowerment and the quest for emancipation. Cambridge University Press, New York, 2013) theory of emancipation, we develop an emancipatory framework of board gender diversity that explains how action resources, emancipative values and civic entitlements enable, motivate and encourage women to take leadership roles on corporate boards. Using a sample of 6390 firms operating in 30 countries around the world, our results show positive single and combined effects of the framework components on board gender diversity. Our research adds to the existing literature in a twofold manner. First, our integrated framework offers a more encompassing, complete and theoretically richer picture of the key drivers of board gender diversity. Second, by testing the framework empirically, we extend the evidence on national drivers of board gender diversity.
Field experiments have provided ample evidence of ethnic and racial discrimination in the labour market. Less is known about how discrimination varies in multi-ethnic societies, where the ethnic composition of populations is different across locations. Inter-group contact and institutional arrangements for ethnic minorities can mitigate the sense of group threat and reduce discrimination. To provide empirical evidence of this, we conduct a field experiment of ethnic discrimination in Russia with a sample of over 9,000 job applications. We compare ethnically homogeneous cities and cities with ethnically mixed populations and privileged institutional status of ethnic minorities. We find strong discrimination against visible minorities in the former but much weaker discrimination in the latter. These findings demonstrate how institutions and historical contexts of inter-group relations can affect ethnic prejudice and discrimination.
This article considers the “territoriality” of civic institutions. Is the “frontier thesis” – according to which areas of new settlement exhibit higher levels of individualism, political activism, and civic organisation – a description only of the western United States, or is it a manifestation of a more generalisable phenomenon found in other global frontier regions? In order to do this, we examine data on the nature of civic institutions in frontier zones in four countries: Brazil, Russia, Canada and the USA. Taking a wide range of survey items, we find that voluntary activity, social trust, tolerance of outgroups, and civic protest are not unique to the American historical experience, but generalised legacies of frontier life. We suggest that the experience of settlement is conducive to the formation of norms of community solidarity and cooperation, and this observation should encourage a new wave of comparative frontier studies.
The article examines two important aspects of data quality in self-completion surveys of young people, taking advantage of a unique data source: Understanding Society: the United Kingdom Household Longitudinal Study. Young persons aged 10–15 are asked to complete a self-administered paper questionnaire at annual intervals. The number of completed interviews varies over waves from 4,049 to 5,020. Data are also collected from parents, providing important explanatory covariates for our analysis. Stronger parent-child relationship and higher mother’s involvement in education were associated with lower item nonresponse rate and lower inconsistency throughout waves. We also found some evidence for a negative panel conditioning effect with an increase of social desirability bias and measurement errors in the subsequent waves. There was a higher level of inconsistent responses and a higher probability of social desirability bias throughout waves in more sensitive items.