The winner of Golden Reference Award was announced in Moscow at the Golden HSE Award ceremony in Moscow. In 2017, LCSR chief research fellow Christian Welzel has become the winner!
The Laboratory for Comparative Social Research invites you to contribute a chapter to the Springer’s volume “Social Capital, Subjective Well-being and Modernization”. Deadline for abstracts is December 20th, 2017.
Laboratory for Comparative Social Research (LCSR) has started data collection of the 7th wave of the World Values Survey (WVS) and the 5th wave of the European Values Study (EVS).
An article by Kirill Chmel (LCSR research assistant), Alexander Demin and Kirill Kazantcev «Dictators’ Behavior Under Conditions of Economic Sanctions Cumulative Effect», has recently been published in the Working Papers Series «Political Science» issued by the HSE Basic Research Programme.
Dataset on Perceptions of Electoral Integrity (PEI-5.5) by Pippa Norris, Thomas Wynter and Max Grömping is available now! This dataset by the Electoral Integrity Project evaluates the quality of elections held around the world. Based on a rolling survey collecting the views of election experts, this research provides independent and reliable evidence to compare whether countries meet international standards of electoral integrity. The datasets are available for analysis at three levels: COUNTRY-level (161 observations); ELECTION-level (260 observations), and also EXPERT-level (2,961 observations). The link to the database is located in the "Resources" section of the LCSR website.
The Laboratory for Comparative Social Research of the National Research University Higher School of Economics announces a call for the 8th LCSR International Workshop «Quantitative Research of Social Changes Across the World», which will be held within the XIX April International Academic Conference on Economic and Social Development. It will take place in Moscow from the 10th till 13th of April 2018. The submission deadline is January 10, 2018.
The Higher School of Economics has entered the Times Higher Education rankings by subject in two categories, Business & Economics (101-125 group), and Social sciences (176-200 group), showing the best result among schools that participate in Project 5-100 in these areas.
LCSR’s research fellow Natalia Soboleva has become a prizewinner of the Elizabeth H. Nelson Prize for the best paper from a society in transition. Laboratory's staff congratulates Natalia on her victory and sincerely wishes her inspiration and success in her endeavours!
- Almakaeva, A., Welzel, C., & Ponarin, E. (2017). Human Empowerment and Trust in Strangers: the Multilevel Evidence. Social Indicators Research, 1-40. DOI: 10.1007%2Fs11205-017-1724-z.
- Aymaliev, I.V. (2017). Corporate Motivations for Donating to the Police in Bulgaria. East European Politics and Societies and Cultures 20(10), 1-37. DOI: 10.1177/0888325417710080.
- Foa, R.S., Inglehart, R., Ponarin, E., & Karabchuk, T. (2017). Set-Point Theory and Societal Collapse: The Case of Russia. Journal of Happiness Studies 18(3), 1-18. DOI: 10.1007/s10902-017-9888-4.
- Golosov, G.V., & Tkacheva, T. (2017). Let My People Run: Pre-Election Resignations of Russia's Governors, 2013-2015. Problems of Post-Communism, 1-10. DOI: 10.1080/10758216.2017.1351305.
- Inglehart, R.F., Ponarin, E., & Inglehart, R.C. (2017). Cultural Change, Slow and Fast: The Distinctive Trajectory of Norms Governing Gender Equality and Sexual Orientation. Social Forces 95(4), 1313-1340. DOI: 10.1093/sf/sox008.
- Kostenko, V., Ponarin, E., Shteiwi, M., Strebkova, O. (2017). Historical Legacies and Gender Attitudes in the Middle East. ERF Working Paper Series. J1.No. 1105. Economic Research Forum, 2017.
- Kravtsova, M., Oshchepkov, A., & Welzel, C. (2017). Values and Corruption: Do Postmaterialists Justify Bribery? Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 48(2), 225-242. DOI: 10.1177/0022022116677579.
- Kruse, S., Ravlik, M., & Welzel, C. (2017). The Legitimacy Puzzle: Why So Many People Confuse the Absence of Democracy with Its Presence. World Values Research 9(2), 1-30.
- Soboleva, N. (2017). Perceptions of Gender Equality in Post-Crisis Europe. European Journal of Government and Economics 6(1), 59-77.
- Sirotkina, E., & Zavadskaya, M. (2017). How to Get Away with Murder in Russia: Political Support in the Times of Crisis. Evidence from the Survey Experiment. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Political Science, WP BRP 47/PS/2017.
- Welzel, C. (2017). A Tale of Culture-Bound Regime Evolution: The Centennial Democratic Trend and Its Recent Reversal. V-Dem Users Working Papers Series 2017:11, 1-33.
- Welzel, C., & Kirsch, H. (2017). Democracy Misunderstood: Authoritarian Notions of Democracy around the Globe. World Values Research 9(1), 1-29.
- Semenov, A., Lobanova, O., & Zavadskaya, M. (2016). When Do Political Parties Join Protests? A Comparative Analysis of Party Involvement in “For Fair Elections” Movement. East European Politics 32(1), 81-104. DOI: 10.1080/21599165.2015.1121870.
- Shcherbak, A., & Sych, K. (2016). Trends in Russian Nationalities Policy: A Structural Perspective. Problems of Post-Communism. DOI: 10.1080/10758216.2016.1225264.
- Kostenko, V., Kuzmichev, P., & Ponarin, E. (2016). Attitudes towards Gender Equality and Perception of Democracy in the Arab World. Democratization 23(5), 862-891. DOI: 10.1080/13510347.2015.1039994.
- Foa, R.S., & Nemirovskaya, A. (2016). How State Capacity Varies within Frontier States: A Multicountry Subnational Analysis. Governance 29(3), 411-432. DOI: 10.1111/gove.12190.
- Inglehart, R.F., & Welzel, C. (2016). Misconceptions of Measurement Equivalence.Time for a Paradigm Shift. Comparative Political Studies 49(8), 1068-1094. DOI: 10.1177/0010414016628275.
- Alexander, A.C., Inglehart, R., & Welzel, C. (2016). Emancipating Sexuality: Breakthroughs into a Bulwark of Tradition. Social Indicators Research 129(2), 909-935. DOI: 10.1007/s11205-015-1137-9.
- Yusupova, G., & Ponarin, E. (2016). Social Remittances in Religion. Muslim Migrants in Russia and Transformation of Islamic Practices. Problems of Post-Communism, 1-13. DOI: 10.1080/10758216.2016.1224552.
- Лопатина С.Л., Костенко В.В., Понарин Э.Д. Дело не в исламе: отношение к абортам, разводам и добрачному сексу в девяти постсоветских государствах // Журнал социологии и социальной антропологии. 2016. Т. XIX. № 3. С. 95-115.
- Соболева Н.Э. Деловая этика в представлении бизнес-элиты как фактор социокультурной мобилизации (на примере слушателей программ MBA) // Общественные науки и современность. 2016. № 6. С. 67-81.
- Волченко О.В., Широканова А.А. Применение многоуровневого регрессионного моделирования к межстрановым данным (на примере генерализованного доверия) // Социология: методология, методы, математическое моделирование. 2016. № 43. C. 7-62.
Publications of Associate Researchers 2016
- Karabchuk, T. (2016). The Subjective Well-Being of Women in Europe: Children, Work and Employment Protection Legislation. Mind & Society 15(2), 219-245. DOI: 10.1007/s11299-016-0194-3.
- Marchenko, A. (2016). Civic Activities in Eastern Europe: Links with Democratic Political Culture. East European Politics 32(1), 12-27. DOI: 10.1080/21599165.2015.1130698.
- Bystrov, E. (2016). Religiosity, Nationalism and Fertility among Jews in Israel Revisited. Acta Sociologica 59(2), 171-186. DOI: 10.1177/0001699316628615.
- Hövermann, A., Groß, E.M., & Messner, S.F. (2016). Institutional Imbalance, Integration into Non-economic Institutions, and a Marketized Mentality in Europe: A Multilevel, Partial Elaboration of Institutional Anomie Theory. International Journal of Comparative Sociology 57(4), 231-254. DOI: 10.1177/0020715216667452.
- Foa, R.S., & Mounk, Y. (2016). The Danger of Deconsolidation. The Democratic Disconnect. Journal of Democracy 27(3), 5-17. DOI: 10.1353/jod.2016.0049.
- Firat, R.B., & Glanville, J.L. (2016). Measuring Diversity in Voluntary Association Membership. A Comparison of Proxy and Direct Approaches. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 46(1), 218-230. DOI: 10.1177/0899764016661776.
- Firat, R.B. (2016, August). Discrimination and Well-Being: The Moderating Effects of Agentic Value Orientations. Social Indicators Research, 1-28. DOI: 10.1007/s11205-016-1425-z.
- Alexander, A.C., Inglehart, R., & Welzel, C. (2016). Emancipating Sexuality: Breakthroughs into a Bulwark of Tradition. Social Indicators Research 129(2), 909-935. DOI: 10.1007/s11205-015-1137-9.
- Sirotkina E., & Karandashova, S. (2016). How Multilevel Elite Loyalty Strengthens Electoral Authoritarianism: Evidence from Gubernatorial Elections in Russia. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Political Science, WP BRP 36/PS/2016.
- Фабрикант М.С. Возможности и последствия националистического поворота: какое будущее станет новым прошлым? // Общественные науки и современность. 2016. № 1. С. 129-140.
- Фабрикант М.С. Модель-ориентированный подход к отсутствующим значениям: множественная импутация в многоуровневой регрессии посредством R (на примере анализа опросных данных) // Социология: методология, методы, математическое моделирование. 2015. № 41. С. 7-29.
- Alexander, A.C., & Welzel, C. (2015). Eroding Patriarchy: The Co-evolution of Women’s Rights and Emancipative Values. International Review of Sociology 25(1), 144-165. DOI: 10.1080/03906701.2014.976949.
- Inglehart,R.F., Puranen, B., & Welzel, C.(2015). Declining Willingness to Fight for One’s Country: The Individual-level Basis of the Long Peace. Journal of Peace Research 52(4), 418-434. DOI: 10.1177/0022343314565756.
- Inglehart, R.F. (2015). Measuring Сulture and Сultural Сhange: An Introduction. Harrison, L. & Yasin, E. (eds.). Culture Matters II: Focus on Russia. New York: Lexington Books.
- Inglehart, R.F., & Norris, P. (2015). French Translation of Sacred and Secular: Religion and Politics Worldwide. Bruxelles: Editions Université.
- Inglehart, R.F. (2015). Insecurity and Xenophobia: Comment on Paradoxes of Liberal Democracy. Perspectives on Politics 13(2), 468-470. DOI: 10.1017/S153759271500033X.
- Kosals, L., & Maksimova, A. (2015). Informality, Crime and Corruption in Russia: A Review of Recent Literature. Theoretical Criminology 19(2), 278-288. DOI: 10.1177/1362480615581099.
- Kostenko, V.V., Kuzmuchev, P.A., & Ponarin, E.D. (2015). Attitudes towards Gender Equality and Perception of Democracy in the Arab World. Democratization 23(5), 1-28. DOI: 10.1080/13510347.2015.1039994.
- Meylakhs, P., Friedman S.R., Mateau-Gelabert, P., Sandoval, M., & Meylakhs, N. (2015). Taking Care of Themselves: How Long-term Injection Drug Users Remain HIV and Hepatitis C Free. Sociology of Health & Illness 37(4), 626-641. DOI: 10.1111/1467-9566.12226.
- Scherbak, A.N. (2015). Does Milk Matter? Genetic Adaptation to Environment: The Effect of Lactase Persistence on Cultural Change. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Sociology, WP BRP 64/SOC/2015.
- Shcherbak, A. (2015). Nationalism in the USSR: A Historical and Comparative Perspective . Nationalities Papers: The Journal of Nationalism and Ethnicity 43(6), 866-885. DOI: 10.1080/00905992.2015.1072811.
- Swader, C.S., & Vorobeva, I.D. (2015). Receiving Gifts for Sex in Moscow, Kyiv, and Minsk: A Compensated Dating Survey. Sexuality & Culture 19(2), 321-348. DOI: 10.1007/s12119-014-9269-7.
- Vecchione, M., Welzel C., et al. (2015). Personal Values and Political Activism: A Cross-National Study. British Journal of Psychology 106(1), 84-106. DOI: 10.1111/bjop.12067.
- Welzel, C., & Delhey, J. (2015). Generalizing Trust: The Benign Force of Emancipation. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 46(7), 875-896. DOI: 10.1177/0022022115588366.
- Lytkina, E. (2015). Anomie And Alienation In The Post-Communist Area: A Reapplication Of The Middleton Scale In Russia And Kazakhstan. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Psychology, WP BRP 32/PSY/2015.
- Shirokanova, A. (2015). Protestant Work Ethic Among the Muslims: Changeable Empirical Evidence. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Sociology, WP BRP 60/SOC/2015.
- Shirokanova, A. (2015). A Comparative Study of Work Ethic among Muslims and Protestants: Multilevel Evidence. Social Compass 62(4), 615-631. DOI: 10.1177/0037768615601980.
- Алмакаева А.М., Доманов А.О. Доверие международным организациям как показатель интеграционных настроений // Евразийская экономическая интеграция. 2015. № 2(27).
- Карабчук Т., Миронова А., Ремезкова В. Работа или второй ребенок: о чем говорят данные РМЭЗ-ВШЭ? // Вопросы экономики. 2015. № 6. С. 81-105.
- Лыткина Е.И. Социальная структура в трех теориях аномии // Вестник Томского государственного университета. Философия. Социология. Политология. 2015. Т. 29. № 1. С. 176-184.
- Немировская А.В. Ожидаемая модернизация регионов Дальневосточного федерального округа // Социологические исследования. 2015. № 2. С. 41-48.
- Тульчинский Г.Л., Сунгуров А.Ю., Щербак А.Н., Акопов С.В., Инглхарт Р.Ф., Вельцель К.П., Малинова О.Ю. Политическая культура / Рук.: Г.Л. Тульчинский; под общ. ред.: Г.Л. Тульчинский. М.: Юрайт, 2015.
Publications of Associate Researchers 2015
- Firat, R.B., & Boyer, P. (2015). Coalitional Affiliation as a Missing Link between Ethnic Polarization and Well-being: An Empirical Test from the European Social Survey. Social Science Research 53, 148-161. DOI: 10.1016/j.ssresearch.2015.05.006.
- Fabrykant, M., & Magun, V. (2015). Grounded and Normative Dimensions of National Pride in Comparative Perspective. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Sociology, WP BRP 62/SOC/2015.
- Bartolini, S., & Sarracino, F. (2015). The Dark Side of Chinese Growth: Declining Social Capital and Well-Being in Times of Economic Boom. World Development 74, 333-351. DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2015.05.010.
- Hövermann, A., Groß, E., Zick, A., & Messner, S. (2015). Understanding the Devaluation of Vulnerable Groups: A Novel Application of Institutional Anomie Theory. Social Science Research 52, 408-421. DOI: 10.1016/j.ssresearch.2015.03.001.
- Hövermann, A., Zick, A., & Messner, S. (2015). Anomie, Marketization, and Prejudice toward Purportedly Unprofitable Groups: Elaborating a Theoretical Approach on Anomie-Driven Prejudices. Acta Sociologica 58(3), 215-231. DOI: 10.1177/0001699315587988.
- Rapp, C., & Ackermann, K. (2015). The Consequences of Social Intolerance on Non-violent Protest. European Political Science Review 8(4), 567-588. DOI: 10.1017/S1755773915000211.
- Rotondi, V., & Stanca, L. (2015). The Effect of Particularism on Corruption: Theory and Empirical Evidence. Journal of Economic Psychology 51, 219-235. DOI: 10.1016/j.joep.2015.09.008.
- Sarracino, F., & Sabatini, F. (2015). Online Social Networks and Trust. Research Papers by Economics and Econometrics Research Institute, MPRA Paper No. 62506.
- Sabatini, F., & Fiorillo, D. (2015). Structural Social Capital and Health in Italy. Economics and Human Biology 17, 129-142. DOI: 10.1016/j.ehb.2015.02.004.
- Sabatini, F., & Yamamura, E. (2015). The Impact of the Media on Voters` Attitude toward Junichiro Koizumi and his Policy. Japan and the World Economy 34-35, 24-32. DOI: 10.1016/j.japwor.2015.03.003.
- Sabatini, F. (2015). Book Review: Immigrant Networks and Social Capital. By Carl L. Bankston III. Immigration and Society series. Cambridge and Malden, MA.: Polity Press, 2014. Journal of Economic Literature 53(2), 371-374.
- Wilkes, R. (2015). Political Conflict Photographs and Their Keyword Texts. Journalism Studies 17(6), 703-729. DOI: 10.1080/1461670X.2015.1006908.
Alexander, A., Welzel, C., & Inglehart, R. (2013). Rising Support for Reproductive Freedoms: Emancipatory Breakthroughs into a Bulwark of Tradition. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Sociology, WP BRP 30/SOC/2013.
Bessudnov, A. (2014). Parental Occupational Status And Labour Market Outcomes In Russia. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Sociology, WP BRP 36/SOC/2014.
Bessudnov, A., & Makarov, A. (2013). Gender Differences in Mathematical Performance and the School Context: Evidence from Russia. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Education, WP BRP 11/EDU/2013.
Fabrykant, M., & Magun, V. (2015). Grounded and Normative Dimensions of National Pride in Comparative Perspective. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Sociology, WP BRP 62/SOC/2015.
Foa, R., Nemirovskaya, A., & Mostovova, E. (2012). Internal Empires I: Social Institutions of the Frontier. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Sociology, WP BRP 09/SOC/2012.
Gryaznova, O. (2013). Factors Affecting Welfare Attitudes in Different Types of Welfare States: Personal Interests and Values. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Sociology, WP BRP 18/SOC/2013.
Inglehart, R., Foa, R., Ponarin, E., & Welzel, C. (2013). Understanding the Russian Malaise: The Collapse and Recovery of Subjective Well-being in Post-communist Russia. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Sociology, WP BRP 32/SOC/2013.
Inglehart, R., Welzel, C., & Puranen, B. (2013). Reinventing the Kantean Peace: The Emerging Mass Basis of Global Security. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Sociology, WP BRP 28/SOC/2013.
Inglehart, R.F., Borinskaya, S., Cotter, A., Harro, J., Inglehart, R.C., Ponarin, E., & Welzel, C. (2013). Genes, Security, Tolerance and Happiness. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Sociology, WP BRP 31/SOC/2013.
Kravtsova, M., Oshchepkov, A., & Welzel C. (2014). Corruption and Docial Values: Do Postmaterialists Justify Bribery? Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Sociology, WP BRP 34/SOC/2014.
Lazarev, Y. (2011). Land, Votes, and Violence: Political Effects of the Insecure Property Rights over Land in Dagestan. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Political Science, WP BRP 01/SOC/2011.
Lazarev, Y.A., Sobolev, A.S., Soboleva, I.V., & Sokolov, B. (2012). Trial by Fire: a Natural Disaster’s Impact on Attitudes toward the Government in Rural Russia. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Political Science, WP BRP 04/PS/2012.
Lytkina, E. (2015). Anomie and Alienation in the Post-Communist Area: A Reapplication of the Middleton Scale in Russia and Kazakhstan. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Psychology, WP BRP 32/PSY/2015.
Magun, V., & Rudnev, M. (2013). Basic Human Values of Russians: Both Different from and Similar to Other Europeans. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Sociology, WP BRP 23/SOC/2013.
Magun, V., Rudnev, M., & Schmidt, P. (2012). Within and Between-Country Value Diversity in Europe: Latent Class Analysis. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Sociology, WP BRP 06/SOC/2012.
Rudnev, M. (2013). Value Adaptation to a New Social Environment: Impacts from Country of Birth and Country of Residence on Values of Intra-European Migrants. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Sociology, WP BRP 13/SOC/2013.
Savelyev, Y. (2014). Modernization and Variations in Emancipative Values in European Societies in 1995-2008: Test of Inglehart’s Socialization Hypothesis. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Sociology, WP BRP 48/SOC/2014.
Shcherbak, A. (2012). Does Culture Matter? The Impact of Tolerance on Economic Modernization in a Comparative Perspective. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Sociology, WP BRP 05/SOC/2012.
Shcherbak, A. (2013). Nationalism in the USSR: A Historical and Comparative Perspective. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Sociology, WP BRP 27/SOC/2013.
Shcherbak, A. (2015). Does Milk Matter? Genetic Adaptation to Environment: The Effect of Lactase Persistence on Cultural Change. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Sociology, WP BRP 64/SOC/2015.
Shcherbak, A. (2016). The Recipe for Democracy? The Spread of European Diet and Political Change. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Sociology, WP BRP 70/SOC/2016.
Shirokanova, A. (2015). Protestant Work Ethic Among the Muslims: Changeable Empirical Evidence. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Sociology, WP BRP 60/SOC/2015.
Sirotkina E., & Karandashova S. (2016). How Multilevel Elite Loyalty Strengthens Electoral Authoritarianism: Evidence from Gubernatorial Elections in Russia. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Political Science, WP BRP 36/PS/2016.
Sirotkina, E., & Zavadskaya, M. (2017). How to Get Away with Murder in Russia: Political Support in the Times of Crisis. Evidence from the Survey Experiment. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Political Science, WP BRP 47/PS/2017.
Swader, C., & Kosals, L. (2013). Post-Socialist Anomie through the Lens of Economic Modernization and the Formalization of Social Control. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Sociology, WP BRP 17/SOC/2013.
Welzel, C., & Inglehart, R. (2013). Evolution, Empowerment and Emancipation: How Societies Ascend the Utility Ladder of Freedoms. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Sociology, WP BRP 29/SOC/2013.
Zelikova, J. (2013). Successful Aging: A Cross-National Study of Subjective Well-being Later in Life. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Sociology, WP BRP 21/SOC/2013.
Zhirkov, K. (2014). Development, Culture, and Attitudes to America: Country-Level Predictors of Anti-Americanism. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Sociology, WP BRP 35/SOC/2014.
Zhirkov, K., Verkuyten, M., & Weesie J. (2012). World Politics and Support for Terrorism within Muslim Populations: Evidence from Muslim Countries and Western Europe. Working Papers by NRU Higher School of Economics. Series: Sociology, WP BRP 08/SOC/2012.
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Лаборатория сравнительных социальных исследований, Национальный исследовательский университет «Высшая школа экономики»;
Laboratory for Comparative Social Research, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Russian Federation.
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The study has been funded by the Russian Academic Excellence Project '5-100'.
Brym’s article in the current issue of this journal is an interesting and well-written discussion of an important topic and it presents a substantial body of evidence, addressing a theoretically significant question. Unfortunately, Brym misinterprets the theory he seeks to refute. He implies that Inglehart’s theory of intergenerational value change predicts that a trend toward Postmaterialist values and Self-expression values will always occur, regardless of economic and social conditions— interpreting evidence of any move in the opposite direction as refuting the theory. In fact, Inglehart has, from the start, argued that the intergenerational shift toward Postmaterialist values and Self-expression values is driven by rising levels of existential security. If younger birth cohorts grow up under substantially higher levels of economic and physical security than their elders, this will produce a trend toward new values; and declining levels of existential security will have the opposite effect.
From 2005 to 2011, the Bulgarian police force collected donations exceeding $90 million from a host of individuals, corporations, foreign governments, persons undergoing criminal investigations, and convicts. After condemnation both domestically and internationally, the practice became completely illegal in 2013. Nevertheless, in 2015, the government lifted the donation prohibition, allowing foreign governments and international and state organizations to donate to the Interior Ministry. Differentiating between utilitarian and moral models of corporate social responsibility is important, since genuine donors create higher value through their prosocial deeds than self-interested ones. Given Bulgaria’s excessive spending on public order and the ambiguous nature of donations to public servants, we seek to understand the corporate motivations for donating to the police. To address this question, we draw upon theories of corporate philanthropy, social exchange, and entrepreneurial orientation and use unique face-to-face interview data from 2011 to 2013 with police officers and businesspeople. Our qualitative findings point to multifaceted drivers of philanthropy beyond those considered in the dominant strategic-instrumental perspective. We argue that donations to the police can be an expression of business executives’ altruistic values, a desire to forge strategic alliances, enhance status in social hierarchies, a form of political reconciliation, or a protection payment. Lastly, we present descriptive statistics of money donated to the Interior Ministry, discuss the potential socioeconomic consequences, and propose policies to reduce police reliance on private financing.
This article builds on research demonstrating that high levels of economic and physical security are conducive to a shift from Materialist to Postmaterialist values---and that this shift tends to make people more favorable to important social changes. This article updates this research, demonstrating that:
(1) These value changes occur with exceptionally large time-lags between the onset of the conditions conducive to them, and the societal changes they produce---as previous work implies but does not demonstrate. The evidence suggests that there was a time-lag of 40 to 50 years between when Western societies first attained of high levels of economic and physical security after World War II, and related societal changes such as legalization of same-sex marriage. (2) A distinctive set of “Individual-choice norms,” dealing with acceptance of gender equality, divorce, abortion and homosexuality, is moving on a different trajectory from other cultural changes. These norms are closely linked with human fertility rates and require severe self-repression. (3) Although basic values normally change at the pace of intergenerational population replacement, the shift from Pro-fertility norms to Individual-choice norms is now moving much faster, having reached a tipping-point where conformist pressures have reversed polarity and are now accelerating changes they once resisted. We test these claims against data from 80 countries containing most of the world’s population, surveyed from 1981 to 2014.
This study investigates the effect of country-level emancipative forces on corporate gender diversity around the world. Based on Welzel’s (Freedom rising: human empowerment and the quest for emancipation. Cambridge University Press, New York, 2013) theory of emancipation, we develop an emancipatory framework of board gender diversity that explains how action resources, emancipative values and civic entitlements enable, motivate and encourage women to take leadership roles on corporate boards. Using a sample of 6390 firms operating in 30 countries around the world, our results show positive single and combined effects of the framework components on board gender diversity. Our research adds to the existing literature in a twofold manner. First, our integrated framework offers a more encompassing, complete and theoretically richer picture of the key drivers of board gender diversity. Second, by testing the framework empirically, we extend the evidence on national drivers of board gender diversity.
While grids or matrix questions are a widely used format in PC web surveys, there is no agreement on the format in mobile web surveys. We conducted a two-wave experiment in an opt in panel in Russia, varying the question format (grid format and item-by-item format) and device respondents used for survey completion (smartphone and PC). The 1,678 respondents completed the survey in the assigned conditions in the first wave and 1,079 in the second wave. Overall, we found somewhat higher measurement error in the grid format in both mobile and PC web conditions. We found almost no significant effect of the question format on test–retest correlations between the latent scores in two waves and no differences in breakoff rates between the question formats. The multigroup comparison showed some measurement equivalence between the question formats. However, the difference varied depending on the length of a scale with a longer scale producing some differences in the measurement equivalence between the conditions. The levels of straightlining were higher in the grid than in the item-by-item format. In addition, concurrent validity was lower in the grid format in both PC and mobile web conditions. Finally, subjective indicators of respondent burden showed that the grid format increased reported technical difficulties and decreased subjective evaluation of the survey.
Since three decades, scholars focus on generalized interpersonal trust as the key component of social capital and there is wide consensus that trust in strangers is the prime indicator of how general people’s trust in others is. However, little work with a specific focus on trust in strangers has been conducted in a comparative, multilevel framework. The few existing studies are inconclusive because of deficiencies in both conceptualization and test strategy. Filling this gap, this article examines the determinants of trust in strangers on the broadest country base ever used in the study of trust, drawing on global cross-cultural evidence from the fifth and sixth rounds of the World Values Surveys--the first international surveys to include a direct question on trust in strangers. Reaching beyond conventional wisdom about the sources of generalized trust, we demonstrate that human empowerment at the country level is a forceful moderator of well-known individual-level determinants of trust. Specifically, in countries with lagging human empowerment, institutional trust, trust in known people and material satisfaction are the only individual-level characteristics that enhance trust in strangers. We also detect an unexpected negative effect of education where human empowerment is lagging. In sharp contrast, in countries with advanced human empowerment, a much broader set of individual-level characteristics increases trust in strangers. This set includes ethnic tolerance, membership in voluntary associations, social movement activity, emancipative values, subjective well-being, age and education. These insights inform a multilevel theory of trust, showing that human empowerment operates as a contextual activator of individual trust promoters.
A number of studies have shown that immigrants are more willing to take risks than native-born populations. In this paper, we measure if the willingness to take risks is contagious and if this effect is different for immigrants and native-born individuals in the United States. We suggest that the willingness to take risks may be contagious, like emotions and generosity, i.e., an individual may be more willing to take risks if others make risky decisions. We measure if contagion has a stronger effect on willingness to take risks among immigrants than native populations using a variety of vignettes, specifically in the domains of career, financial investment, and health. Respondents were randomly assigned either to a control or experimental condition. In the experimental condition we attempted to induce risk taking by suggesting that other individuals made risky decisions in the lottery-choice tasks (a “risk shift condition”). Contrary to expectations, the risk shift condition had a positive effect on willingness to take risks among native-born, while a negative effect or no effect was found among immigrants (conservative shift). Native-born found the situations more beneficial in the risk shift condition than in the control condition, while immigrants found them less beneficial in the risk shift condition. The conservative shift was found among immigrants, as well as males and self-employed. Risk shift condition reduced the sense of power among power motivated individuals (males and immigrants), which produced a less optimistic evaluation of risky situations. While taking into consideration that others make risky decisions immigrants and males perceived situations as less beneficial for them. The results of the experiment have some implications for our understanding of the link between a sense of power and the willingness to take risks.