Address: Kyiv, Ukraine
Education and academic positions:
Academic Interests: Global Sociology, World-Systems Analysis, Macrosociology, Historical and Comparative Research, Social Change, Futures Research, Teaching Methods, Social Research Methodology, Modeling and Forecasting, Development, Governance, Democracy, Social Activism, Identities, Public Opinion
Social Development or Social Crisis: Modernization Theory versus World-Systems Analysis
The dynamics of the modern world is described and explained in different ways, and the two opposing interpretations are suggested by modernization theory and world-systems analysis. Modernization theory argues a more inclusive global socioeconomic and human development, while world-systems analysis emphasizes world inequality and global crisis. If modernization theory is sound, then human development should be manifested in the increase of importance of democracy and the increase of social cohesion, manifested in the rise of trust and the value of egalitarian society. If world-systems approach is correct, then world inequality and global crisis would be reflected in: the amplified intrastate social conflicts, explicated in the decrease of importance of democracy, more distrust, and the increase in perceived competition in society; the increased interstate competition, indicated by the decrease of confidence in intergovernmental organizations, the increase of priority of national interests over global issues, defense as a national goal, fear of aggression of a neighboring country, and higher readiness to fight for own country. The data sets of World Values Survey waves #2-6 have been used for the inquiry. The sample included up to 52 countries with up to 314, 581 respondents. With the aim to evaluate dynamics of change described in hypotheses, time series analysis of the six survey waves has been conducted. The empirical data demonstrates that the willingness to fight in a war reached its maximum in 1994-1998, then fell down and became historically the lowest in 2010-2014. Trust in people grew and reached its peak in 1994-1998, then fell down and returned to its maximum level only in 2010-2014. Aims of the country varies too: people turned away from economic development and other peaceful goals to strong defense forces in 1999-2004 and in 2010-2014. The confidence in the United Nations is steadily growing over time. Top priority to national problems was in 2005-2009, while in 2001-2014 it moved a little bit towards reducing poverty in the world. We discovered that that the majority of the selected indicators are extremely stable over time and have not change considerably for the last 6 waves. However, some dynamics is present. People tend to become defensive during and after crisis with some time lags. At the same time, people seem to be trustful to their fellow countrymen in unification against foreigners. Luckily, the same does not apply to readiness to fight in a war, which was maximum after the peak crisis, but then diminished.
Proactive Orientation and Individual Activism as Causes of Personal Achievement and Subjective Well-Being
In this research, the causal influences among proactive orientation, individual activism, personal achievement, and subjective well-being in the world as a whole and in three world-system zones on the basis of World Values Survey 5th wave dataset have been examined. To test the first and in the second hypotheses, a structural equation modeling in MPlus 6.12 was conducted. The SEM modeling results for the entire sample are the following. Hypothesis 1 is confirmed: 1) person’s high proactive orientation leads to intense individual activism which promotes high level of personal achievement and thus contributes to higher subjective well-being. Hypothesis 2 is only partially confirmed: 2.1) person’s proactive orientation does have a direct influence on personal achievement; 2.2) nevertheless, there was found no statistically significant direct influence of proactive orientation and individual activism on subjective well-being. To examine the third hypothesis the multiple group analysis in MPlus 6.12 has been performed. Comparison of regression coefficients for the three world-system zones generated these findings. Hypothesis 3 is only partially confirmed: 3.1) positive influence of person’s individual activism on subjective well-being is the strongest in the core, is weaker in the semiperiphery, and is even negative in the periphery; 3.2) however, there are relatively small differences between degrees of links between individual activism and personal achievement in the three world-system zones; 3.3) moreover, the degrees of influence of all other constructs are surprisingly reverse: they are stronger either in the semiperiphery or the periphery and the weakest in the core.